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Role of coal in global energy

Context

Economic growth is related to progressive growth in the production of various commodities of human consumption and it is not possible to ensure development of any country without the mobility of regular and continuous production cycle of energy supply. In addition to petroleum, electricity, coal, water and molecular power, air and solar power are the main sources of energy for the developing and developing countries. Considering the increasing energy needs and their diversity today, the system of production and distribution of energy is required at a large scale and it is possible only through the controlled use of available energy sources. It is noteworthy that coal is also the largest source of electricity on earth, so correlation with the economic development of coal makes it more valuable and necessary energy alternatives but it is a non-renewable energy source, so it is also necessary to limit and use its storage .

Production and Use of Coal: Global Scenario

  • High income countries use less energy consumption i.e. less coal. At the same time, there are countries with energy-focused developing economy using more coal, China and India are a clear example.
  • But if we look at some discrepancies, we will find that Australia is not only a high-income country, but there is also much dependence on coal for energy with the abundance of coal production.
  • At the same time, the same can be said about America, but with the issue of President Donald Trump’s protectionism.
  • In Poland and German, the mining industry is established for a long period and in the year 2011, in the form of attempts to end nuclear power after the Fukushima disaster in Japan, coal has emerged as a good source of energy choice.
  • Similarly, in the recent years the Netherlands has promoted the use of coal to compensate for the shortage of natural gas.
  • The petro-states of West Asia and Russia are clearly focusing more on oil or natural gas for their future generation.
  • Similarly, access to Brazilian hydroelectric and natural gas of Mexico excludes them from the low-income category of those appropriate energy-focused economies, which do not use too much coal.
  • Occasionally such accidental expenditure underscores the importance of local factors in making the power of coal flexible.
  • Looking at the above-mentioned incompatible developed economies, it is found that the use of coal in these countries has been the worst decline.
  • It is notable that the Netherlands announced earlier this year that it would ban the use of coal as energy in the coming decade.
  • Even the host country of the United Nations Climate Dialogue, Poland has set targets for reducing the share of power generation from coal by 32% by the year 2040.
  • Following the Fukushima incident, Japan is encouraging solar energy while taking precaution against energy security, but plays an important role in the case of more efficient coal plants.
  • In its latest Climetescope study published recently, Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) estimates that new solar and coastal wind projects, respectively, much later than the rest of the world (2025 and 2040), Japan’s new coal plant is out of the economy will not be able to do.
  • Thus Japan shows more flexibility in coal than in any other country in Asia, the financial institutions here provide funds for new coal plants, because in this way it promotes the export of technology outside the country.

Coal

  • Coal is an unviable energy source. 
  • Non-renewable resources are those resources whose repositories are not restored by natural processes. These resources are eliminated by human activities and it takes millions of years to rebuild.
  • Coal is a solid organic substance that is used in the form of fuel. Coal is very important as a major source of energy. The coal used for power generation is called ‘thermal coal’, whereas the coal used for production of coke required for steel production is called ‘coking coal’. 
  • Coal resources are available in the peninsular India, the old Gondwana Shell Group and the new tertiary shell group of the North-Eastern region. 
  • Resource word refers to mineral or fuel for measuring the total mineral or fuel of a country or a country.
  • While storage means the storage of fuel or minerals, which extract economical and geologically possible minerals with the help of technology.

Depending on the amount of carbon, the basic categories of coal are as follows:

  • Peat Coal: The amount of carbon in it is 50% to 60%. Burning it, more ash and smoke emanate. This is the lowest level coal.
  • Lignite Coal: The amount of carbon in the coal is 65% to 70%. Its color is brown, it contains more water vapor.
  • Bituminous coal: it is also called soft coal. It is used in domestic activities. Carbon volume is 70% to 85% in it.
  • Anthracite Coal: This is the best quality of coal. The amount of carbon in it is more than 85%.

Status of India and China

  • There is a possibility of increasing use of energy in India for increasing population, expansion of economy and better quality of life.
  • Considering the ecological conservation ban on restricted reserves of petroleum and natural gas and the hydropower project and the geopolitical approach of nuclear energy, coal will remain the focal point of India’s energy scenario.
  • Both India and China, which use coal excessively, are in line with the concept of junk food in terms of global energy needs.
  • According to all the three scenarios involved in the International Energy Agency (IEA) World Energy Outlook, these two countries have increased the use of coal for electricity, as well as in the decline of the green climate, Contributions.
  • Between 2010 and 2017, the capacity of power produced by coal in China and India was jointly 432 gigawatts. By the end of the year 2017, the capacity of coal produced in the entire United States was 279 gigawatts.
  • Despite the rapid decline in the cost of renewable energy, battery storage, the problem of air quality associated with combustion of coal in China and Indian cities remains persistent.
  • According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), solar energy and onshore wind power are now new and cheap sources of power generation in China and India, but still the cost of renewable energy needs to be reduced by the cost of existing coal so that coal Stop the usage.
  • America, where cheap shale gas and renewable energy is a combination, high cost of importing natural gas in Asia makes coal a residual alternative to electricity.

Coal mining problem

In spite of having the energy requirement of coal present and future, its mining has the following problems:

  • Surface Mining of coal, i.e. mining operations, under which excavation and explosion etc. and this process creates serious problems of air and noise pollution.
  • In addition to this, due to surface erosion, silt is collected along with soil erosion. Silt flows into streams that contaminate the ground floor of the reservoirs located near the coal mine or related to it.
  • It is common for underground mining to occur in the mining areas during the work or after the completion of mining work, the occurrence of fall or land erosion of underground mines is common.
  • Mining from some mines pollute a large part of waste water areas.
  • Apart from this, people who work in the mining areas generally have to compromise their lives due to fire incidents of coal in underground mines. Also, people living in adjoining areas have to face various types of respiratory diseases due to the smoke coming from mines.
  • The expansion of industrialization and the rise in pollution have taken one another to the other developing countries and big cities, and cities of India are not even beyond this scope.
  • Apart from these problems, the use of coal in electricity production and industries in thermal power plants is a major source of air pollution.
  • Despite the above problems, it is also an important issue in the name of carbon emissions to force developed countries to stop their development work from time to time.

Forward path

  • Today, the problem in front of the world is how to give development a continuous and long-term form.
  • Significantly, this would be possible only by the controlled use of available energy sources. No development can be sustained until the availability of energy is ensured.
  • In recent years, the concept of sustainable development has been strengthened in the whole world which has raised environmental issues.
  • Even though coal is like junk food for our development engine, but we have to find new energy options for ourselves without interrupting development work.
  • India has also stepped up its move and has set a target of achieving 175 gigawatt renewable energy by 2022. Therefore, there is a need to achieve this goal firmly so that without preventing any development work, India can reduce its carbon emissions.

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